The HVJ-Envelope as an Innovative Vector System for Cardiovascular Disease
Recently promising results of gene therapy clinical trials have been reported for treatment of peripheral vascular and cardiovascular diseases using various angiogenic growth factors and other therapeutic genes. Viral vector and non-viral vector systems were employed in preclinical studies and clinical trials. Adenoviral vector and naked plasmid have been used most in the clinical studies. HVJ (hemagglutinating virus of Japan or Sendai virus)-liposome vector, a hybrid non-viral vector system with fusion of inactivated HVJ virus particle and liposome, has developed and demonstrated high transfection efficiency in preclinical studies of many different disease models, including a wide range of cardiovascular disease models. However, some limitations exist in the HVJ-liposome technology, especially in the scalability of its production. Recently an innovative vector technology, HVJ envelope (HVJ-E) has been developed as a non-viral vector, consisting of HVJ envelope without its viral genome, which is eliminated by a combination of inactivation and purification steps. HVJ-E is able to enclose various molecule entities, including DNA, oligonucleotides, proteins, as single or multiple therapeutic remedies. The therapeutic molecule-included HVJ-E vector can transfect various cell types in animals and humans with high efficiency. In this review, vector technology for cardiovascular disease and the biology of HVJ-E vector technology is discussed.
Keywords: hvj-envelope, vector system, cardiovascular disease, hemagglutinating virus, gene therapy
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