Pain is a common experience of mankind. Pain theories and the management of pain have been modified throughout the history of mankind. This article gives a brief review on pain, pain believes and pain management from early magico-demonic and magico-religeous ideas and procedures to more empiric-scientific models; from ancient times and primitive cultures to the 20 th century. Due to new anatomical, physiological and biochemical insights, modern pain theories developed in the 19 th and 20 th century. Modern analgesics were synthesized and new invasive procedures were approved having a major impact on pain management strategies. However, older traditional beliefs and attitudes have not been replaced completely and have survived to some degree in modern patients.