Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumor Properties of Proteasome Inhibitors
Kenyon G. Daniel,
Deborah J. Kuhn,
Q. P. Dou.
Tumor growth and metastasis depend on the formation of blood vessels, angiogenesis, to supply the developing mass with nutrients, oxygen, and waste removal. The proteasome, a massive multisubunit catabolic body, exerts a regulatory influence on angiogenesis. Inhibition of the proteasome activity has been found to inhibit angiogenesis and induce apoptosis in human cancer cells with limited toxicity to normal cells. Therefore, the dual action of angiogenesis inhibition and cell death induction makes proteasome inhibition an attractive modality for chemotherapy. A variety of proteasome inhibitors have been studied including: antibiotics such as lactacystin, the green tea polyphenols, and the boronic acid Velcade (MLN-341). Most recently, certain classes of copper compounds have been found to act as potent proteasome inhibitors. The potential of particular organic compounds, such as 8-hydroxyquinoline, to spontaneously bind with tumor cellular copper and form proteasome inhibitors provides a new modality of anti-proteasome and antiangiogenesis chemotherapy. This review examines angiogenesis, the proteasome, representative proteasome inhibitors, and the emerging role of copper. The formation of new blood vessels, or angiogenesis, is an important and necessary function in both embryonic development and wound repair [1, 2]. Therefore, the ability to regenerate or form new vessels for blood flow is essential. The control of angiogenic pathways is tightly regulated in normal differentiated adult cells, which generally do not stimulate blood vessel growth unless injury occurs. However, cancerous tissues stimulate angiogenesis that in turn leads to increased tumor formation and possible metastases . Many of the factors involved in angiogenesis are regulated by the proteasome, which recently has become a focus in anti-cancer therapies due to its involvement in cell cycle and apoptosis control [4, 5]. Here we discuss angiogenesis and its relation to the proteasome. Additionally, current modalities of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly proteasome inhibitory strategies, are reviewed. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors, both natural and synthetic, and their anti-angiogenic effects as well as future approaches to anti-angiogenic chemotherapies are also discussed.
Keywords: cancer, chemotherapy, angiogenesis, anti-angiogenesis, proteasome, proteasome inhibitors, green tea, egcg, velcade (mln-341), ps-341
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