Multilocus HLA haplotypes could be investigated by family analysis, and there are salient differences in the distributions of HLA alleles among different populations. In the present study, HLA -A, B and DRB1 alleles and haplotypes were investigated based on 166 families in Shanghai Han population by molecular biological HLA typing methods and the distribution characteristic of HLA alleles and haplotypes were analyzed. The results of our investigation showed that allele frequencies of more than 10% for HLA alleles were A*0201 / 07, A*1101, A*2402, B*4001, B*4601, DRB1*090102, DRB1*1202 and DRB1*15. In the analysis of HLA haplotypes, we identified 185 kinds of A-B haplotypes , 241 kinds of B-DRB1 haplotypes and 164 kinds of A-DRB1 haplotypes. Fifteen kinds of A-B haplotypes and 15 kinds of B-DRB1 haplotypes and 7 kinds of A-DRB1 haplotypes occurred at frequencies of more than 0.5% (linkage disequilibrium value Δ > 0, c2 > 6.63). Three hundred eighty-three kinds of A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were found and 20 kinds of A-B-DRB1 haplotypes occurred at frequencies of more than 0.5% (Δ > 0). The common A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were A*3001-B*1302-DRB1*0701 (4.2%), A*0201 / 07-B*4601-DRB1*090102 (3.0%), A*3303-B*5801-DRB1*0301 (2.7%), A*3303-B*5801-DRB1*1301 / 02 (1.8%), A*1101-B*1502-DRB1*1202 (1.5%) and A*1101-B*3901-DRB1*0803 (1.1%). Comparison of the distribution of A-B-DRB haplotype among different populations revealed that Shanghai Han population has its own genetic characteristics, but are closed to East Asian populations and show more abundant polymorphism in the distribution of HLA alleles compare to East Asian populations. The result obtained in this study will be useful to provide information and instruction on Shanghai Han population for genetics, anthropology, association in diseases and forensic paternity testing. Equally encouraging is the potential benefit in helping patients search out healthy, matching hematopoietic stem cells.