The Medicinal Chemistry of Botulinum, Ricin and Anthrax Toxins

Author(s): Rickey P. Hicks, Mark G. Hartell, Daniel A. Nichols, Apurba K. Bhattacharjee, John E. van Hamont, Donald R. Skillman.

Journal Name: Current Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 12 , Issue 6 , 2005

Submit Manuscript
Submit Proposal

Abstract:

The potential use of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological or chemical) by terrorist organizations represents a major threat to world peace and safety. Only a limited number of vaccines are available to protect the general population from the medical consequences of these weapons. In addition there are major health concerns associated with a pre-exposure mass vaccination of the general population. To reduce or eliminate the impact of these terrible threats, new drugs must be developed to safely treat individuals exposed to these agents. A review of all therapeutic agents under development for the treatment of the illnesses and injuries that result from exposure to nuclear, biological or chemical warfare agents is beyond the scope of any single article. The intent here is to provide a focused review for medicinal and organic chemists of three widely discussed and easily deployed biological warfare agents, botulinum neurotoxin and ricin toxins and the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax will be addressed because of its similarity in both structure and mechanism of catalytic activity with botulinum toxin. The common feature of these three agents is that they exhibit their biological activity via toxin enzymatic hydrolysis of a specific bond in their respective substrate molecules. A brief introduction to the history of each of the biological warfare agents is presented followed by a discussion on the mechanisms of action of each at the molecular level, and a review of current potential inhibitors under investigation.

Keywords: biological toxins, infectious agents, poisonous chemicals, anthrax, biological weapons

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as


Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2005
Page: [667 - 690]
Pages: 24
DOI: 10.2174/0929867053202223
Price: $58

Article Metrics

PDF: 6