Anti-mRNA and particularly antisense oligonucleotides are molecules able to inhibit gene expression after intracellular penetration being potentially very interesting for the treatment of ocular diseases where growth factors are involved such as ocular scarring diseases or for the inhibition of viral multiplication. In most cases, the site of action of oligonucleotides has shown to be the posterior segment of the eye and these molecules are injected mainly by the intravitreal route. However, oligonucleotides are poorly stable in biological fluids, have a low intracellular penetration and are quickly eliminated form the vitreous. These issues request repeated administration of oligonucleotides which are able to induce severe damages to the retina. This is the reason why drug delivery systems were developed to improve the stability and intracellular penetration of oligonucleotides and, by sustained release, to increase their long term activity in the treatment of ocular diseases.
Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides, intraocular administration, intravitreal administration, delivery systems
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