The Chick Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane as a Model System for the Study of Tumor Angiogenesis, Invasion and Development of Anti-Angiogenic Agents
A. Cevik Tufan,
N. Lale Satiroglu-Tufan.
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is essential for tumor growth, progression and metastasis. The development of agents that target tumor vasculature is ultimately dependent on the availability of appropriate preclinical screening assays. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is well established and widely used as a model to examine angiogenesis, and anti-angiogenesis. This review 1) summarizes the currently used angiogenesis assays and the importance of CAM model among them; 2) summarizes the current knowledge about the development and structure of the CAMs capillary bed; 3) reports findings regarding the role played by molecular signaling pathways in angiogenesis process; 4) discusses the use, advantages and limitations of the CAM as a model for studying tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness, as well as development of angiogenic and/or anti-angiogenic agents; 5) discusses the importance of standardization of the major methodologies for all aspects of the use of the CAM in angiogenesis-related studies; 6) and finally, summarizes major findings regarding the agents developed by the use of CAM model in the study of tumor angiogenesis, invasion and development of anti-angiogenic agents.
Keywords: smooth muscle cells, vasculature, endothelial cells, cell migration assay, aortic ring assay, extraembryonic membranes, heparan sulfate, extracellular matrix (ecm), angiogenesis
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