To achieve effective drug concentration at the intended site for a sufficient period of time is a requisite desired for many drug formulations. For drugs intended to ocular delivery, its poor bioavailability is due to pre-corneal factors. Most ocular diseases are treated by topical drug application in the form of solution, suspension and ointment. However, such dosage forms are no longer sufficient to combat some ocular diseases. Intravitreal drug injection is the current therapy for disorders in posterior segment. The procedure is associated with a high risk of complications, particularly when frequent, repeated injections are required. Thus, sustained-release technologies are being proposed, and the benefits of using colloidal carriers in intravitreal injections are currently under investigation for posterior drug delivery. This review will discuss recent progress and specific development issues relating to colloidal drug delivery systems, such as liposomes, niosomes, nanoparticles, and microemulsions in ocular drug delivery.
Universidade Estadual Paulista-Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Laboratorio de Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Rodovia Araraquara-Jau, Km 1, 14806-192, Araraquara-SP, Brazil.