Locoregional administration of a genetic construct by means of in vivo, in situ isolated perfusion (IP) of a target organ or extremity is a method that may increase in vivo efficacy. Vascular isolation and perfusion minimizes systemic exposure and thereby reduces unwanted side effects. Isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) is the most extensively studied IP model, especially in gene therapy protocols for inborn errors of metabolism. To achieve stable transduction most frequently retroviruses are used in IHP. IHP is combined with hepatectomy or vascular ligation of liver lobes to induce liver regeneration increasing transduction efficacy. When adenoviruses are used in IHP high transduction percentages of hepatocytes can be achieved without significant toxicity. In tumor models adenoviral IHP has been performed, but has not been very successful up till now. Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is a promising treatment modality in pre-clinical cancer gene therapy studies. After ILP a homogeneous distribution of transduced cells was demonstrated especially at the viable rim of the tumor and around tumor associated vessels. Moreover complete tumor responses have been observed. Isolated pulmonary perfusion (IPP) results in selective expression in the perfused lung and the duration of expression is longer than after systemic administration. In rats a significant decrease of tumor nodules upon IPP can be achieved. Furthermore other less studied perfusion models are discussed: isolated kidney perfusion (IKP), isolated spleen perfusion (ISP) and isolated cardiac perfusion (ICP). IP is a methodology that delivers vectors highly selectively, with a long exposure time and high concentrations at the target side. This results in higher transduction rates and thereby may improve therapeutic effects.
Keywords: Isolated perfusion, gene therapy, adenovirus, retrovirus, limb, liver, lung, kidney
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