Basal bolus insulin dosing (BBD) may be defined as the physiological replacement of basal and bolus insulin to achieve near normal glycemia without hypoglycemia and loss of life quality. Normally, continuous and variable basal insulin release provides partial suppression of hepatic glucose production to maintain euglycemia during the fasting period. With meals, additional insulin is released in a biphasic pattern to further suppress hepatic glucose production and to increase glucose transport into muscle, fat and liver. Newer subcutaneous insulins for bolus and basal mimic near normal secretion. In addition, improvements in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump features such as dual wave insulin delivery allow improved postprandial glycemia. Insulin dosing is done in a three step process. Firstly, the dosage is estimated based on formulas derived from body weight or previous insulin requirements. Secondly, pre-dosing adjustments modify these formulas by considering estimations of insulin sensitivity based on clinical judgment and laboratory evaluations. Lastly, post-dosage adjustments are based on timed, self-monitored, blood glucose determinations assisted by overall average glucose determinations such as hemoglobin A1c. Continuous glucose monitoring systems have provided a more insightful tool for dosage adjustments. Daily consecutive intensive glucose evaluations using a continuous glucose monitoring system and corresponding dosage adjustments may offer an even better tool for insulin dosing selection.
Keywords: insulin dosing, basal bolus dosing, carbohydrate insulin ratio, insulin correction factor, continuous glucose monitoring, hypoglycemia
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport