Hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is an inevitable evolution of prostate carcinogenesis, through which the normal dependence on hormones for growth and survival is bypassed. Although advances in terms of symptoms palliation and quality of life improvement have been addressed with current treatment options, innovative approaches are needed to improve survival rates. A thorough understanding of HRPCassociated molecular pathways and mechanisms of resistance are a prerequisite for novel potential therapeutic interventions. Preclinical and early clinical studies are ongoing to evaluate new therapies that target specific molecular entities. Agents under development include growth factor receptor inhibitors, small molecules targeting signal transduction pathways, apoptosis and cell-cycle regulators, angiogenesis and metastasis inhibitors, differentiation agents, telomerase inactivators, and epigenetic therapeutics. Incorporation of these agents into existing treatment regimens will guide us in the development of a multidisciplinary treatment strategy of HRPC. This article critically reviews published data on new biological agents that are being tested in HRPC clinical trials, highlights ongoing research and considers the future perspectives of this new class of agents.