The Importance of Lost Minerals in Heart Failure

Author(s): Kevin P. Newman , Matthew T. Neal , Matthew Roberts , Kayla D. Goodwin , Elizabeth A. Hatcher , Syamal K. Bhattacharya .

Journal Name: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 5 , Issue 4 , 2007

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Abstract:

The clinical syndrome congestive heart failure (CHF) has its origins rooted in a salt-avid state mediated largely by effector hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In addition, a systemic illness accompanies chronic RAAS activation. Its features include: the presence of oxidative stress in diverse tissues coupled with a reduction in activity of endogenous oxidoreductases, such as Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase and Se-glutathione peroxidase; a proinflammatory phenotype with activated immune cells and increased circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines; and a catabolic state with loss of soft tissues and bone that eventuates in a wasting syndrome termed cardiac cachexia. Pathogenic mechanisms and pathophysiologic expressions of this illness are under active investigation. In this context and less well appreciated is the importance of a dyshomeostasis of various minerals, including Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn, and Se, and their impact on the systemic and progressive nature of CHF. A convergence of multiple factors, some hormonal (e.g., aldosteronism, secondary hyperparathyroidism, hypovitaminosis D), others pharmacologic (e.g., loop diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), predispose to the heightened excretion of these minerals in urine and feces while parathyroid hormone promotes intracellular Ca2+ overloading in diverse tissues. The importance of these macro- and micronutrients to the appearance of oxidative stress, compromised antioxidant defenses, an immunostimulatory state and tissue wasting needs to be critically addressed. So, too, must the potential for nutriceuticals, complementary to todays pharmaceuticals, to assist in the overall management of CHF.

Keywords: heart failure, aldosterone, calcium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone

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Article Details

VOLUME: 5
ISSUE: 4
Year: 2007
Page: [295 - 299]
Pages: 5
DOI: 10.2174/187152507782109872
Price: $58

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