Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disabling neurological disease in young adults and is thought to result from an autoimmune attack against autoantigens within the myelin sheath. A characteristic feature of MS is the broad heterogeneity of clinical, histopathological and immunological phenotypes, which urges a more differentiated defining of patients by biological markers that reflect the underlying disease process and allow the prediction of disease courses and treatment responses. Here we review the current research on the identification of biomarkers for MS in cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood. We will focus on antibodies to myelin and non-myelin antigens, cells and soluble molecules of the immune system and the brain as biomarkers for 1) the diagnosis and prediction of clinical courses, 2) disease activity and 3) treatment response in MS.
Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, biological marker, MRI, serum, cerebrospinal fluid
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