Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a significant healthcare concern worldwide that affects more than 165 million individuals leading to cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, and widespread disease of both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The incidence of undiagnosed diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired fasting glucose levels raises future concerns in regards to the financial and patient care resources that will be necessary to care for patients with DM. Interestingly, disease of the nervous system can become one of the most debilitating complications and affect sensitive cognitive regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus that modulates memory function, resulting in significant functional impairment and dementia. Oxidative stress forms the foundation for the induction of multiple cellular pathways that can ultimately lead to both the onset and subsequent complications of DM. In particular, novel pathways that involve metabotropic receptor signaling, protein-tyrosine phosphatases, Wnt proteins, Akt, GSK-3β, and forkhead transcription factors may be responsible for the onset and progression of complications form DM. Further knowledge acquired in understanding the complexity of DM and its ability to impair cellular systems throughout the body will foster new strategies for the treatment of DM and its complications.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Akt, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, erythropoietin, Forkhead, FOXO, glycogen synthase kinase, metabotropic, mitochondria
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport