Few public health problems have captured the attention of the biomedical and lay communities alike as has Alzheimer Disease (AD). Several questions remain still open in disease management, as the necessity to delineate disease process from “normal ageing”. In the last few years, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) has received significant attention, thus it represents the major risk factor for AD. Not all people diagnosed as having MCI, however, will develop AD, hence there is a need to reliably predict progression. To this aim, different biomarkers have been proposed with the attempt to identify MCI people who already have pre-clinical AD. Neuropsychological assessment, peripheral and CSF biomarkers as well as neuroimaging findings (both structural and functional) have reported variable accuracy values, but better results have been obtained by combined biomarker approach. In this review, we summarise the most recent findings on combined biomarkers and their usefulness in clinical practice for the early and preclinical diagnosis of AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, biomarkers, cerebrospinal fluid, amyloid precursor protein, platelets, proteomics
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