Breast cancer development and progression is regulated by crosstalk between steroid hormones (SHs) (e.g., estrogens, progestins and androgens) and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), insulin, epidermal growth factors (EGFs), transforming growth factors, and vascular endothelial growth factor. The biological effects of SHs are mediated by the nuclear receptors acting as transcriptional activators. Steroid hormone receptors (SRs), in addition to being induced by their own ligands, are also regulated by cellular kinases activated by growth factors. Growth factors are known to influence the expression and activity of SRs as well as regulate the action of various SR transcriptional cofactors. In turn, the expression of growth factor receptors, their ligands, and signaling molecules is often controlled by SHs. This review will focus on crosstalk between the IGF-I system and several SRs implicated in breast cancer.
Keywords: C-terminal LBD, AF1 (activation function 1), cyclin D1 protein expression, Progestins, Androgens, Src homology 2
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