Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and advantages stages are inevitably resistant to conventional therapeutic agents. In particular, the inability of undergo apoptosis in response to chemotherapy and other external stimuli poses a selective advantage for tumor progression, metastasis formation as well as resistance to therapy in melanoma. Herein, we will review the discovery of MDR transporters and the apoptotic mechanisms used by melanoma cells. Furthermore, the novel strategies to overcome tumor chemoresistance will also discuss. In particular, we will review the cancer stem cell hypothesis and how the failure of MDR reversal agents might increase the therapeutic index of substrate antineoplastic agents.
multi-drug resistance (MDR) Transporter, dacarbazine, ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, apoptosis, Chemoresistance
Department of Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Milan, Italy.