Towards Better Brain Management: Nootropics
Ruchi Malik, Abhijeet Sangwan, Ruchika Saihgal, Dharam Paul Jindal and Poonam Piplani
Affiliation: University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India.
The learning and memory deficits have been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous neurodegenerative states. Research in this area has gained momentum only in the recent past after the biochemical and physiological basis of these processes have been understood. A considerable alteration in the neurotransmission is a consistent finding in cognitive disorders. Therefore, many therapeutic strategies to augment the concentration of neurotransmitters in brain such as cholinergic agents, biogenic amines and neuropeptides etc. have been evaluated in cognitive deficits. CNS modulators are the type of antiamnesics that act via modulation of the neurological processes underlying memory storage. These include psychostimulants, excitatory amino acids and most important of all “nootropics”. Nootropics are a heterogeneous group of compounds of diverse chemical composition and biological function that allegedly facilitate learning and memory or overcome natural or induced cognitive impairments. The literature survey incorporated in this article hallmarks the success achieved in the design and development of potential nootropic agents. Additionally, this review is an attempt towards discussing various approaches available to enhance memory, along with the classification of the known memory enhancers, authors research work towards various structural modifications carried out and the biological screening.
Keywords: Nootropics, Neurotransmission substitution therapies, CNS modulators, Metabolic enhancers, Cholinergic activators, racetams, Paracetamol derivatives, Antiamnesic activity
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