Acute ischemic stroke causes a disturbance of neuronal circuitry and disruption of the blood-brainbarrier that can lead to functional disabilities. At present, thrombolytic therapy inducing recanalization of the occluded vessels in the cerebral infarcted area is a commonly used therapeutic strategy. However, only a minority of patients have timely access to this kind of therapy. Therefore, finding other techniques to effectively treat stroke patients is an important research goal. Stem cell therapies, such as adult stem cell transplantation, are promising strategies for the treatment of stroke. Preclinical experimental studies have included the application of human stem cells from various sources including the brain, bone marrow, umbilical cord, and adipose tissue. This review provides an update on current preclinical cell-therapies for stroke, focusing on stem cells derived from adult sources.