Ex Vivo Modification of Cells to Induce a Muscle-Based Expression
Simon P. Quenneville,
Jacques P. Tremblay.
Ex vivo gene therapy is a possible treatment for several muscular dystrophies. The best transgene to be expressed and the appropriate cell type to be used currently remain the subject of many investigations. The most adequate gene modification technique also remains to be established. Different transgenes have already been tested in animal models and transgenic mice. Several cell types were evaluated during the last decades and several vectors or transfection methods were analysed. From these essays, over time, several proofs of principles were made to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of therapy. For DMD, it is possible to express several truncated versions of dystrophin or exon skipping molecules. It is also possible to express other molecules that would mitigate the phenotype. Different cell types are also available. From the well documented myoblasts to the AC133 positive cells, the choice of cell types is exploding. Gene modification also evolved during the last decade. Efficient transfection technique and viral vectors are currently available. Given all these possibilities, the researcher has to make several choices. This review is trying to give clues of how to make those choices.
Keywords: Viral vectors, stem cells, transfection, myoblasts, HSCs, transplantation
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