Chemoprevention has the potential to be a major component of colon, breast, prostate and lung cancer control. Epidemiological, experimental, and clinical studies provide evidence that antioxidants, antiinflammatory agents, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and several other phytochemicals possess unique modes of action against cancer growth. However, the mode of action of several of these agents at the gene transcription level is not completely understood. Completion of the human genome sequence and the advent of DNA microarrays using cDNAs enhanced the detection and identification of hundreds of differentially expressed genes in response to anticancer drugs or chemopreventive agents. In this review, we are presenting an extensive analysis of the key findings from studies using potential chemopreventive agents on global gene expression patterns, which lead to the identification of cancer drug targets. The summary of the study reports discussed in this review explains the extent of gene alterations mediated by more than 20 compounds including antioxidants, fatty acids, NSAIDs, phytochemicals, retinoids, selenium, vitamins, aromatase inhibitor, lovastatin, oltipraz, salvicine, and zinc. The findings from these studies further reveal the utility of DNA microarray in characterizing and quantifying the differentially expressed genes that are possibly reprogrammed by the above agents against colon, breast, prostate, lung, liver, pancreatic and other cancer types. Phenolic antioxidant resveratrol found in berries and grapes inhibits the formation of prostate tumors by acting on the regulatory genes such as p53 while activating a cascade of genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis including p300, Apaf-1, cdk inhibitor p21, p57 (KIP2), p53 induced Pig 7, Pig 8, Pig 10, cyclin D, DNA fragmentation factor 45. The group of genes significantly altered by selenium includes cyclin D1, cdk5, cdk4, cdk2, cdc25A and GADD 153. Vitamine D shows impact on p21(Waf1/Cip1) p27 cyclin B and cyclin A1. Genomic expression profile with vitamin D indicated differential expression of gene targets such as c-JUN, JUNB, JUND, FREAC-1/FoxF1, ZNF-44/KOX7, plectin, filamin, and keratin-13, involved in antiproliferative, differentiation pathways. The agent UBEIL has a remarkable effect on cyclin D1. Curcumin mediated NrF2 pathway significantly altered p21(Waf1/Cip1) levels. Aromatase inhibitors affected the expression of cyclin D1. Interestingly, few dietary compounds listed in this review also have effect on APC, cdk inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27. Tea polyphenol EGCG has a significant effect on TGF-β expression, while several other earlier studies have shown its effect on cell cycle regulatory proteins. This review article reveals potential chemoprevention drug targets, which are mainly centered on cell cycle regulatory pathway genes in cancer.
Genomics, profiling, DNA microarrays, transcriptomes, chemoprevention, antioxidants, phytochemicals, resveratrol, n-3 PUFA, NSAIDs
Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine,Tuxedo, NY, 10987, USA.