Evolution of a “Conserved” Amino Acid Sequence: a Model Study of an In Silico Investigation of the Phylogenesis of Some Immune Receptors

Author(s): M. A. Panaro , A. Acquafredda , M. Sisto , S. Lisi , M. Saccia , V. Mitolo .

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 12 , Issue 32 , 2006

Abstract:

In this paper we analyze a 55-amino acid (aa) sequence which is relatively well conserved in several seventransmembrane receptor families (from Insects to Mammals) and in some Viruses. This sequence, which covers the second transmembrane domain, the first extracellular loop and the third transmembrane domain, appears in its complete configuration in most of the seven-transmembrane receptor families, as well as in the protein products of some viruses. Other seven-transmembrane receptors and viruses exhibit reduced configurations of the conserved sequence, lacking either aa 31 or aa 30-31. 53-aa configurations are typically found in most chemokine receptor (CKR) subfamilies, as well as in some viral protein products. However, the CCR1, CCR3, and CCR6 subfamilies comprise a 54-aa configuration and the CKRrelated protein products, ChemR23 and RDC1, include the complete 55-aa sequence. For each CKR subfamily the ”modal sequence” of the conserved segment was constructed by selecting the most frequently occurring aa at each position. Then, pairwise alignments were made between: (i) the modal CKR sequences, and (ii) the sequence (53-aa) of the Yaba-like disease virus - 7L protein. From the alignments two consensus matrices were derived: (i) the consensus 1 matrix with reference to the whole conserved segment, and (ii) the consensus 2 matrix with reference to aa 22-29, which appear to be the most variable segment of the sequence. Based on the obtained consensus values and with reference to this specific conserved segment, the following conclusions are proposed: (1) ChemR23 and RDC1 are probably the more primitive CKR forms; (2) CCR1 and CCR3 may be grouped in a single cluster; (3) CCRs 2, 4, and 5 are closely related to each other and may be grouped in a cluster; CCR7 is likely to be evolutionarily related to this cluster; (4) CXCRs 2, 3, and 4 and CCX CKR appear to be evolutionarily related to each other and very likely derived from an CCR6-like gene; (5) CCR2/4/5 and CCR7 may have derived either from CCR1/3-like or CCR6-like genes; (6). The Yaba-like disease virus - 7L protein most likely derived, through “molecular piracy”, from a CCR8-like gene. We also discuss possible, more remote, evolutionary links between CKRs, formylpeptide receptors, and possibly the highly conserved 18S rRNA genes.

Keywords: Cell membrane receptors, Seven-transmembrane receptors, Chemokine receptors, Viruses, Conserved sequences, Evolution, Formyl peptide receptors, 18S rRNA

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 32
Year: 2006
Page: [4091 - 4121]
Pages: 31
DOI: 10.2174/138161206778743439
Price: $58