Efficacious protection for future generations from HIV-1 infection through the development of prophylactic vaccines is the best hope for the millions of individuals living with the threat of HIV-1 infection. Advances in the development of non-curative chemotherapy for those already infected have changed the course of the epidemic for those with access to the drugs. However in the ten years since the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, the expectancy of curative chemotherapy has been quashed, and the constant need for a next generation of drugs is evident. As our understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis increases, it is becoming apparent that novel approaches and strategies will be required to halt the global progression of HIV-1. Immune-based therapies are being considered in the context of effective antiretroviral therapy. Such immunebased therapy must allow the induction or regeneration of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses with the potential to control viremia and purge viral reservoirs. Studies of therapy substitution, treatment interruption, therapeutic vaccines and/or cytokines and/or hormones have been carried out and are briefly summarised in this review.
Keywords: HIV-1, Immune modulation, immunisation, cytokines, HAART, immune reconstitution
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