This paper aimed at reviewing the involvement of neuropeptides in various psychiatric diseases, particularly in depression, and anxiety disorders. General features of neuropeptides are first described, including the history of their discovery, their definition, classification, biosynthesis, transport, release, inactivation, as well as their interaction with specific neuronal receptors. The differences with classical neurotransmitters are mentioned, as well as the different patterns of co-transmission. Finally, different mechanisms, both at the cellular and at the systemic level, are proposed that may explain the involvement of these molecules in various psychiatric diseases. Indeed, at the cellular level, a neuropeptide can be involved in a psychiatric disease, either because it is co-localized with a classical neurotransmitter involved in a disease, or because the neuropeptide-containing neuron projects on a target neuron involved in the disease. At the systemic level, a neuropeptide can play a direct role in the expression of a symptom of the disease. This is illustrated by different exemples.