The evolution of a novel class of pyrazinone direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) is described. In an effort to improve the solubility and thereby the drug-like properties of pyrazinones that possess non-basic P1 residues, a novel amino P1-P2 linker has been designed from X-ray thrombin-inhibitor complexes. Biochemical evaluation demonstrated that nanomolar binding affinity was attained, and X-ray co-crystal structures reveal an unprecedented binding mode that involves an interaction of the new amino linker with Glu192 of the active site of thrombin. A family of soluble pyrazinones has thereby emerged.
Keywords: Thrombin, pyrazinone, X-ray, binding mode, selectivity
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