Neurons are highly asymmetric cells, specialized to transmit and receive information through axons and dendrites. Neuronal morphology is determined by a particular cytoskeletal organization that provides the framework for distinct axonal and dendritic structures. Dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangements occur during neurite outgrowth, neuronal plasticity and synaptic connectivity. In this work, we summarize the evidences that support that these dynamic changes are mainly governed by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation equilibrium of cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal-associated proteins. In addition, we describe evidence supporting that in neurodegeneration an imbalance of this equilibrium occurs, followed by disarray of the cytoskeleton in axons and dendrites with the consequent disruption of synaptic connectivity. Finally we discuss current strategies and patents that could contribute to re-establish a balance in the brain of patients with dementia.
Keywords: Cytoskeletal organization, neurodegeneration, brain, microtubule associated proteins, Tau
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