Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin continue to be among the most efficient anticancer drugs in world-wide clinical use so far. In particular, cisplatin has shown a remarkable therapeutic efficacy in a broad spectrum of solid tumors and outstanding activity against metastatic testicular germ-cell cancer with cure rates of about 90% of cases. Nevertheless, the dose-limiting severe toxic side-effects of platinum-based chemotherapy, the problem of inherent or therapy-induced resistance, the limited activity in a range of tumors, and the meager tumor selectivity are the motivation for tremendous efforts and inventions in the development of novel anticancer platinum drugs. This article reviews the most recent patents in this field of research, covering the following strategies in the design of promising anticancer platinum complexes: (i) synthesis of new anticancer platinum complexes, using combinatorial chemistry and high throughput synthesis and screening, (ii) activation of platinum complexes in the tumor tissue, (iii) accumulation of platinum complexes at the tumor site, (iv) novel platinum complexes, displaying activity against cisplatin resistant cells and as inhibitors of specific biological functions, and (v) direct derivatives of classical anticancer platinum drugs in clinical use.
Keywords: platinum complexes, cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin, synthesis, novel derivatives, combinatorial chemistry, high throughput synthesis and screening, reduction of side-effects, activation
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