The pathogenesis of sepsis involves complex interaction between the host and the infecting microorganism. Recognition and processing of microorganism antigens are essential functions of the cells of innate immune systems, and will ultimately, through the antigen presentation to the cells of adaptive immunity and the synthesis and secretions of mediators, such as cytokines, drive a coordinated immune response. Neutrophils and monocytes will therefore function as sensing and effectors cells. Fundamental in this process is the ability to discriminate self from non-self molecules. Of major interest in sepsis is that the protective and damaging host responses are part of the same process, that is, the inflammatory response that controls the infection process also underscores many of the pathophysiological events of sepsis. Moreover, this is a dynamic process according to the continuum of sepsis and its complications; up and down regulation of cellular activities may be differently regulated in different tissues, different cells and even in different functions of the same cell. This review will focus on microorganism recognition and signalization in sepsis, with emphasis on the neutrophils and monocytes adaptation during the ongoing disease.
Keywords: pattern recognition receptors (PRR), Drosophila Toll homologs, double-stranded DNA, LPS cell interaction, antimicrobial antigens
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