The importance of stem cells in regenerating or repairing damaged or diseased tissues is well established, but three factors have to be considered in employing stem cells clinically. The first is how to harvest, handle, and multiply them non-invasively, easily, and effectively. From this standpoint, adiposederived stem cells are considered to be the best to work with among mesenchymal stem cells; since they were first reported in 2001, their pluripotency, proliferative efficiency, and low donor morbidity have been amply confirmed. The second factor is how to differentiate stem cells into the required cells and use them effectively to construct three-dimensional tissues; here, tissue-specific scaffolds and signaling systems are essential. The third factor is how to ensure survival of the differentiated cells and regenerated tissues. Regenerated tissues need to contain vascular systems to allow both the tissues themselves and the differentiated cells to survive. Thus, we believe that the vascularization of regenerated tissues will be an important field of research in the near future. In this paper, we focus on adipose-derived stem cells and vascularized tissue regeneration within the context of tissue transplantation.