The recent increase in immunocompromised patient populations, including HIV-infected patients, cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, and transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, has led to an increased incidence of clinically significant chronic opportunistic infections. Traditional treatment of chronic persistent infections has strongly relied on the use of antimicrobial drugs. However, unsatisfactory results with drug monotherapy and emergence of resistant strains have prompted the use of adjunctive cytokine therapies for the treatment of these infections. During the past decade, a wide spectrum of immunomodulators has been tested in human clinical trials and animal models of chronic infections caused by a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. This review compiles recent information on advances in the use of cytokines as a therapeutic strategy in chronic bacterial, parasitic, fungal and viral infections.
Keywords: Proinflammatory, NK cell proliferation, humoral immunity, Klebsiella Pneumoniae Infection, Listeriosis, Lyme disease, Fungal Infections
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