Development of Ligands for the Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor
Michelle L. James, Silvia Selleri and Michael Kassiou
Affiliation: Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Missenden Road,Camperdown NSW 2050, Australia.
The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) initially characterised as a high affinity binding site for diazepam, is densely distributed in most peripheral organs whilst only moderately expressed in the healthy brain. The predominant cell type expressing the PBR at regions of central nervous system (CNS) pathology are activated microglial cells. Under neuroinflammatory conditions there is an over-expression of PBR binding sites indicating that measurements of PBR density can act as a useful index of brain disease activity. The PBR is now considered a significant therapeutic and diagnostic target which has provided the impetus for PBR ligand development. There are several classes of PBR ligands available including benzodiazepines (Ro5- 4864), isoquinoline carboxamides (PK 11195), indoleacetamides (FGIN-1-27), phenoxyphenyl-acetamides (DAA1106) and pyrazolopyrimidines (DPA-713). Subsequent conformationally restrained isoquinoline and indoleacetamide analogues have been synthesised in an attempt to yield PBR ligands with superior affinity and brain kinetics. Even though the PBR has been linked to a number of biochemical processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, porphyrin transport and immunomodulation, its exact physiological role is yet to be deciphered. Selective PBR ligands with favourable in vivo binding properties and kinetics is required to gain a more complete understanding on the normal functioning of the PBR and the chemical pathways underlying several pathological conditions. Novel PBR ligands with unique binding properties and functional activity may also generate information on the localisation of the PBR and the possibility of PBR subtypes. This review highlights the main classes of PBR ligands to date. In addition the biological activity and therapeutic potential of certain PBR ligands is discussed.
Keywords: diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), Isoquinoline Carboxamides, Benzoxazepines, Indoleacetamide, Vinca Alkaloids, Pyrazolopyrimidines
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