Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most deadly threats to the human race. Though the developed countries have been able to control the epidemic by utilizing the discovery of very expensive diagnostics, the situation is dangerously alarming in developing and underdeveloped countries. However, development of highly active antiretroviral drugs has improved the survival and quality of life, but prolonged treatment results in viral load rebound to pretherapy levels. Recent advances in our understanding of eukaryotic and genome- integrated viral gene expression showed that regulation of chromatin function is closely linked to the multiplication of HIV. Therefore, a new therapeutic approach has been initiated targeting the chromatin-modifying enzymes mainly histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases which may lead to a better and economical anti- HIV combinatorial therapeutics. In this review, we have discussed the mechanisms of HIV gene expression in the chromatin context and its potentiality to be exploited as new therapeutic target.
Keywords: Chromatin, Histone code, Histone acetyltransferases (HATs), Histone deacetylases (HDACs), Histone methyltransferases(HMTases), HIV, Tat, Chromatin therapy
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