Specialisation of the Tropomyosin Composition of Actin Filaments Provides New Potential Targets for Chemotherapy
Justine R. Stehn,
Geraldine M. O'Neill,
Peter W. Gunning.
The actin microfilament network is important in maintaining cell shape and function in eukaryotic cells. It has a multitude of roles in cellular processes such as cell adhesion, motility, cellular signalling, intracellular trafficking and cytokinesis. Alterations in the organisation of the cytoskeleton and changes in cellular morphology, motility and adhesiveness are characteristic features of transformed cancer cells. For this reason cytoskeletal microfilaments have become promising targets for chemotherapy. In contrast to the microtubules, which have been targeted successfully with anti-tumour drugs such as Taxol-like compounds and the Vinca alkaloids, very few actin targeting drugs have been characterised. To date, no actin targeting drugs have been used in clinical trials due to their severe cytotoxicity. One reason for this cytotoxicity is that drugs such as the cytochalasins and latrunculins disrupt actin microfilaments in both non-tumour and tumour cells. To circumvent this problem, actin filament populations need to be targeted more specifically. Not all actin filaments are the same and there is growing evidence that within a cell there are different populations of actin filaments which are spatially organised into distinct cellular compartments each with a unique function. The structure and function of the actin cytoskeleton is primarily regulated by the associated actin binding proteins. Tropomyosin is an intrinsic component of most actin filaments and over 40 isoforms have been identified in non-muscle cells. Tm isoforms are spatially segregated and current evidence suggests that they can specify the functional capacity of the actin microfilaments. Therefore the composition of these functionally distinct actin filaments may be important in determining their stability and function within the cell. If actin filament populations can be discriminated and targeted based on their tropomyosin composition then this becomes a powerful approach for anticancer therapy.
Keywords: Tropomyosin, actin, chemotherapy, actin binding proteins, isoforms, sorting, microfilaments
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