Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 Reverse Transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) is one of the most important targets for treatment of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It catalyzes the reverse transcription of HIV-RNA into a double stranded DNA, and the knowledge of its substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism has guided the development of several inhibitors widely used on current HIV/AIDS therapy. However, mutations in HIV-1 RT structure can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains. The goal of this review is to summarize relevant structural features of HIV-1 RT and its inhibitors in such a way that this cost-effective target in the development of new antiretroviral drugs is particularly highlighted.
Keywords: Reverse transcriptase, nucleoside, nucleotide, non-nucleoside, DNA, RNA, antiretroviral, AIDS
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