Immune Response to Pre-Erythrocytic Stages of Malaria Parasites
D. L. Doolan and N. Martinez-Alier
Affiliation: Malaria Program, NavalMedical Research Center, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring,20910-7500, USA.
Immunization with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium spp. sporozoites induces sterile protective immunity against parasite challenge. This immunity is targeted primarily against the intrahepatic parasite and appears to be sustained long term even in the absence of sporozoite exposure. It is mediated by multifactorial mechanisms, including T cells directed against parasite antigens expressed in the liver stage of the parasite life cycle and antibodies directed against sporozoite surface proteins. In rodent models, CD8+ T cells have been implicated as the principal effector cells, and IFN-γ as a critical effector molecule. IL-4 secreting CD4+ T cells are required for induction of the CD8+ T cell responses, and Th1 CD4+ T cells provide help for optimal CD8+ T cell effector activity. Components of the innate immune system, including gamma-delta T cells, natural killer cells and natural killer T cells, also play a role. The precise nature of pre-erythrocytic stage immunity in humans, including the contribution of these immune responses to the age-dependent immunity naturally acquired by residents of malaria endemic areas, is still poorly defined. The importance of immune effector targets at the pre-erythrocytic stage of the parasite life cycle is highlighted by the fact that infection-blocking immunity in humans rarely, if ever, occurs under natural conditions. Herein, we review our current understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of preerythrocytic stage immunity.
Keywords: Pre-erythrocytic, T cells, cytokines, immunity, protection, regulation, antigen presentation, antigen persistence
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