Functional Properties of Pentacyclic Triterpenes Contained in "Orujo" Olive Oil
Maria D. Herrera,
Pomace oil (orujo olive oil), is an olive sub-product which possesses potential beneficial components (e.g. tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenes: oleanolic and maslinic acids, erythrodiol and uvaol) to which great variety of biological effects is attributed. Pharmacological properties of oleanolic acid have been demonstrated: anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, anti-diabetogenic, antibacterial and anti-HIV activities. There is scarce evidence about the pharmacological effects of these triterpenoid on vascular events; the chronic treatment of Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats with these natural compounds (oleanolic and ursolic acids) prevent the development of hypertension with significant bradycardia and potent diuretic activity. In relation to erythrodiol and uvaol, only their therapeutic efficiency on different experimental models of inflammation has been reported. Moreover, uvaol plays a protective role on the oxidation of lipoproteins of low density in vitro, as well as a protective effect on induced hepatic injuries. Maslinic acid is effective in the treatment of diseases caused by agents that use the serin-protease in their mechanism of infection, like the AIDS virus and it has capacity to prevent the damage caused by the free radicals. Therefore, the intake of orujo olive oil, as a source of these compounds, might be beneficial in this regard.
Keywords: Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, erythrodiol, uvaol, triterpenes, pomace oil
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