Nanomagnets-From Fundamental Physics to Biomedicine
Nanomagnets are expected to expand the capabilities of widely established technologies such as data recording and to implement new functionalities of applicability in biosciences. The basis for these potential benefits of nanomagnets is their intrinsic small size and their outstanding properties derived from finite-size and surface effects as well as collective phenomena and unusual transport properties. This review aims to describe recent developments on the potential use of nanomagnets in data recording, which rest in three fundamental approaches and their combinations (composition, shape and exchange interactions). Aside from data recording, we also describe recent advances on the use of nanomagnets in biosciences from analytical (biosensors, magnetic resonance imaging, separation) to therapeutic applications (drug delivery, hyperthermia eradication of malignancy). Special emphasis has been set in understanding the physics behind the benefits of using nanomagnets of different characteristics. Finally, we have addressed some of the perspectives and challenges for the potential future development of nanomagnets and applications based on these systems.
Keywords: Nanomagnets, Data Recording, Biomedicine, Nanoneedles, Nanowires, Nanorings, High Anisotropy, Exchange Bias, Biosensors, MRI
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