Current Concepts in Gastric Motility in Diabetes Mellitus

Author(s): Christophe E.M. De Block, Ivo H. De Leeuw, Paul A. Pelckmans, Luc F. Van Gaal.

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 2 , Issue 1 , 2006

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Abstract:

This review addresses the current concepts in our understanding of the epidemiology, mechanisms, symptoms, clinical consequences, diagnosis and treatment of delayed gastric emptying in patients with diabetes. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly postprandial fullness, nausea, vomiting and abdominal bloating, occur in 30-50% of patients with diabetes. The use of scintigraphic techniques, and more recently breath test, has shown that as many as 50% of diabetic patients have gastroparesis. Diabetic gastroparesis comprises a decrease in fundic and antral motor activity, a reduction or a lack of the interdigestive migrating motor complex, gastric dysrhythmias, and pylorospasms. The mechanisms involved include: autonomic neuropathy, acute hyperglycaemia, and abnormalities in gastrointestinal hormones and neuropeptides. Other possible contributing factors such as hypothyroidism and H. pylori infection are discussed as well. Because treatment is possible by means of dietary advise, prokinetics or surgical procedures, it is important to identify risk factors for and to diagnose gastroparesis to prevent morbidity by controlling gastrointestinal symptoms, and to enhance glucoregulation. Understanding the current advances is key to the development of novel therapeutic strategies and for making rational choices in the management of diabetic gastroparesis.

Keywords: Gastric emptying, Diabetes mellitus, Autonomic neuropathy, Prokinetics

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Article Details

VOLUME: 2
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2006
Page: [113 - 130]
Pages: 18
DOI: 10.2174/157339906775473662

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