The determination of superoxide anion (O2 .-) is of great physiological and pathological importance since O2 .- is considered to be involved in the etiology of aging, cancer, and progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinsons disease. The determination of the local concentration of O2 .- has been a relatively challenging analytical problem because of the low concentration, high reactivity and short lifetime of O2 .- in biological systems. This review raises a number of methods, highlighting electrochemical methodologies, for the determination of O2 .-. These electrochemical sensors and biosensors and their analytical characteristics are discussed in detail.
Keywords: Superoxide anion (O2), Electrochemical biosensors, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Cytochrome c, Self-assembled monolayer (SAM), in vivo
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