Regulation of Macrophage Homeostasis
Pp. 14-36 (23)
Tracey L Bonfield
Macrophages contribute to both initiation and resolution of inflammatory processes.
These cells of diverse functional activity participate as both effectors and affectors in host tissue
development, homeostasis and response to injury. Survival and function of the macrophage is
dependent on colony stimulating factors granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and
macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). These colony stimulating factors play a significant
role in defining the phenotype and activity of macrophages through regulating the expression of
transcription factors PU.1 and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARγ). Recent
data suggests that alveolar macrophages are not passive participants in immune responses and that
the status of “macrophage activation” defines the phenotype of the ensuing innate and adaptive
responses. The status of alveolar macrophage activation, including cytokine production,
phagocytosis, and antigen presentation, orchestrates the intensity and duration of the immune
response. This chapter summarizes the perspectives of colony stimulating factor regulation of
macrophage activity in immunity and pulmonary homeostasis.
The Inflammatory Mediator CORE, Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.