Pp. 1-19 (19)
F. A. Izadi
For the purpose of being self-contained, the book starts with some elementary topics.
These include the definition of various standard sets, some basic combinatorial definitions and identities,
introducing complex numbers and their arithmetic properties, in particular de Moivre formula and the
nth roots of a complex number. The case of square root gives rise to an elegant formula for the root of
the real number of the form a± √b. The next two sections are devoted to the definitions and properties
of matrices and determinants, the solutions of the linear system of equations as well as the formulas for
some special determinants, in particular the Vandermonde determinant. Finally, the closing remark of the
chapter is the definition of a function which plays an important role in discrete calculus. Because of its
relation to the arrangement formula it is called "the arrangement power function".