Frontiers in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery

Frontiers in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery

Volume: 1

Indexed in: Scopus, Book Citation Index, Science Edition (BKCI-S), Web of Science, BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, Chemical Abstracts, EBSCO.

“Frontiers in Cardiovascular Drug Discovery” is an eBook series devoted to publishing the latest and the most important advances in Cardiovascular drug design and discovery. Eminent scientists ...
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Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Pp. 105-120 (16)

GianLuca Colussi, Cristiana Catena, Elisa Nadalini, Alessandra Chiuch, Alessandro Di Fabio, Marica Valeri and Leonardo A. Sechi

Abstract

ω-3 and ω-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are the major families of PUFA that can be found as components of the human diet. After ingestion, both ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA are distributed to every cell in the body where they are involved in a myriad of physiological processes, including regulation of cardiovascular, immune, hormonal, metabolic, neuronal, and visual functions. At the cell level, these effects are mediated by changes in membrane phospholipids structure, interference with eicosanoid intracellular signaling, and regulation of gene expression. Two long-chain ω-3 PUFAs, the docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid, are found in fatty fish and other marine sources and might be the putative dietary components thought to modify the cardiovascular risk in subjects consuming high amounts of such food. Evidence of an inverse relationship between fatty fish intake and cardiovascular risk has, in fact, emerged in studies performed more than twenty years ago in Eskimos and has been subsequently confirmed in other ethnic groups. The benefits of ω-3 PUFA might relate principally to prevention of coronary heart disease, coronary artery restenosis after angioplasty, and sudden arrhythmic death. In this brief review, we will cover the general biochemical aspects of ω-3 PUFA, summarize the evidence relating these fatty acids with control of cardiovascular risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular events, and overview the most recent and relevant patents that are related to these issues. More specifically, we will deal with the possibility to use PUFA in association with other molecules that can potentiate their antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic effects

Keywords:

ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cardiovascular risk, atherosclerosis, inflammation, coronary heart disease, arrhythmia, aspirin, policosanols, statins

Affiliation:

Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pathology and Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy