Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: An Established Pacing Therapy for Heart Failure and Mechanical Dyssynchrony

Indexed in: Scopus

In recent decades, the prevalence of heart failure has steadily increased and can be considered a contemporary cardiovascular epidemic. Therefore, treatment of heart failure is a primary focus of ...
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Echocardiographic Evaluation during Follow-Up of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Patients

Pp. 49-61 (13)

Adelina Doltra and Marta Sitges


Despite the fact that there is no consensus on the clinical impact of optimizing cardiac resynchronization devices, echocardiography is currently the most used method to optimize the programming of the device in the absence of other well validated methodology. On the other hand, while the role of cardiac imaging in the selection of candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy remains controversial, it is well established that imaging is essential to establish an objective evidence of response to the therapy. In the present chapter, the role of cardiac imaging in optimizing the programming of CRT devices as well as of the usefulness in the follow-up of patients treated with CRT will be discussed.


Echocardiographic evaluation, follow-up, cardiac resynchronization therapy, optimization, auriculoventricular, interval, inter-ventricular interval, reverse remodeling


Cardiology Department, Thorax Institute, Hospital Clinic, Institut d`Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.