4D Fetal Echocardiography

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical ...
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Automated Echocardiography

Pp. 78-84 (7)

Elena Sinkovskaya and Alfred Abuhamad


The recent introduction of 3D/4D ultrasonography to clinical practice presents an important milestone in imaging technology. In this chapter, we will present the basic principles of 3D automated sonography as it relates to the examination of the fetal heart. This approach holds great promise for simplifying the fetal cardiac examination that may translate to increased prenatal detection of congenital heart disease.


3D Sonography, Fetal Echocardiography, Automated Multiplanar Imaging, Diagnostic Cardiac Planes.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, United States