Rendering Cardiac Volumes in Three and Four-Dimensional Ultrasonography
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This chapter summarizes different approaches currently used to examine the fetal heart using three and
four-dimensional ultrasonography with a particular emphasis on multiplanar display and novel rendering
modalities. These new imaging modalities provide important insight into the normal and abnormal fetal cardiac
anatomy and function and have the potential to reduce the operator dependency that characterizes twodimensional
Fetal Echocardiography, 4D Fetal Echocardiography, Volume Rendering.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, William Beaumont Hospital Royal Oak, MI USA