4D Fetal Echocardiography

4D Fetal Echocardiography

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most frequent malformation in the human fetus and are the leading cause of mortality due to malformations in the first year of life. Despite its clinical importa
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Real Time Three Dimensional Fetal Echocardiography Using Two Dimensional Array Technology

Pp. 29-37 (9)

Dev Maulik, David Mundy and Timothy Bennett


Three dimensional (3D) echocardiography represents a major paradigm shift in medical ultrasound imaging. As opposed to reconstructed 3D echocardiography which is based on a series of two dimensional images, the revolutionary development of the two dimensional (2D) matrix phased array transducer permits true real time live 3D imaging of the fetal heart. Preliminary experience has demonstrated that real time/live 3D echocardiography is not only feasible in assessing the fetal cardiac anomalies, it also permits unique comprehensive views of the fetal heart that are unattainable with 2D echocardiography. With further evolution of the technology, and appropriate education and training RT3D echocardiography may evolve as a powerful supplement to conventional 2D echocardiography.


Real time three dimensional, Fetal echocardiography, Live 3D, Two dimensional matrix transducer.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri, USA