Governing of Agro-Ecosystem Services in Bulgaria
Pp. 94-129 (36)
This paper incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics
and analyzes the governance of agro-ecosystem services in Bulgaria. Firstly, it presents a
comprehensive framework of analyses of environmental governance including: definition of agroecosystem
services and governance; specification of governance needs and spectrum of governing
modes (formal and informal institutions, market, private, public and hybrid forms); assessment of
efficiency of different modes of governance in terms of their potential to protect diverse eco-rights and
investments, assure a socially desirable level of agro-ecosystem services, minimize overall costs, coordinate
and stimulate eco-activities, meet individual and social preferences and reconcile conflicts of
related agents etc. Secondly, it identifies and assesses the governance of agro-ecosystem services in
Bulgaria. It proves that post-communist transition and EU integration brought about significant changes
in the state and the governance of agro-ecosystems services. Newly evolved market, private and public
governance has led to a significant improvement of the part of agro-ecosystems services introducing
modern eco-standards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, disintensifying
production, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products and
services. At the same time, the novel governance is associated with new challenges such as
unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination etc.
Moreover, it demonstrates that implementation of the EU common policies would have no desired
impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public
programs, extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.
Agro-ecosystem services; environmental management; market, private, public and hybrid
governance; eco-impact of EU policies; Bulgaria.
Institute of Agricultural Economics, 125 "Tzarigradsko shose" Blvd, Blok 1, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria