Molecular Oncology: Principles and Recent Advances

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Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Despite hundreds of clinical trials currently in progress for cancer patients, the success rate is still very low. Understanding the molecular ...
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In Vitro and In Vivo Models for Cancer Research

Pp. 148-162 (15)

Julio Isael Perez Carreon and Jorge Melendez Zajgla

Abstract

Nowadays cancer kills thousands of humans around the world, so its research presents an important challenge to decrease cancer mortality. Strategies for cancer research have made great advancement in the last century, providing major insight into the complexity of tumor development. Numerous experimental protocols for many years have been performed to mimic features of cancer cells in humans; for example, to generate tumors in living organisms and study cancer in cultured cells. This chapter describes several of theses biological models: 1) chemical carcinogenesis protocols 2) genetically modified animals (transgenic and knockout mice), 3) cancer cell lines culture, 4) gene manipulation in cultured cells such as DNA transfection and RNA interference for gene knockdown and 5) the concept of cancer stem cells. The significance of in vivo and in vitro models for cancer research lies in the possibility of providing improved understanding of cancer biology and cancer treatment.

Keywords:

Carcinogenesis, cell culture, transgenic mice, DNA damage, cancer stem cells, knockout mice, chemical carcinogen, cytochrome p450, metabolic activation, DNA adducts, dysplasia, solid tumors, DNA transfection, gene silencing, RNA interference.

Affiliation:

Instituto Nacional de Medicina Genomica Mexico (INMEGEN), Periferico Sur No. 4809, Col. Arenal Tepepan, Delegacion Tlalpan. Mexico, D.F. C.P. 14610.