I. The Influence of the Environment
Pp. 18-27 (10)
Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz and Araceli Hernandez-Zavala
There is a close and direct relationship between the magnitude of the exposure of compounds in the
environment that disrupts its natural equilibrium and the development of disease. Many of these substances act as
mutagens or promoters or synergistically behave as carcinogens, and thus contribute to the growing incidence of
cancer worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in the induction of genomic instability,
genotoxicity, mutations and consequent increased cell proliferation are still a matter of intense research. In
particular, tobacco smoke, exposure to radiation, pesticides, dioxins, organic compounds, metals and metalloids,
and outdoor air pollution, will be reviewed with respect to epigenetic events, genetic polymorphism susceptibility,
gene expression and signal transduction modification, and oxidative stress cellular events related to
Environment, genes, tobacco, UV radiation, pesticides, dioxins, benzene, estrogens, cancer, chromium,
cadmium, arsenic, air pollution, particulate matter, reactive oxygen species.
Department of Toxicology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Avenida Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, 07360 Mexico City, Mexico.