Current Topics on Fetal 3D/4D Ultrasound

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Assessment of Fetal Behaviour by 3D and 4D Sonography

Pp. 212-249 (38)

Asim Kurjak, Iva Lausin and Guillermo Azumendi


During the past few decades, morphological studies of fetal brain as well as ultrasound imaging of fetal intrauterine activities in the real time provided invaluable information about the most important events in the development of human central nervous system. Analysis of the dynamics of fetal behaviour has led to a conclusion that fetal behavioural patterns directly reflect developmental and maturational processes of fetal nervous system. It has been suggested that the ultrasound assessment of fetal behaviour could be used for the evaluation of fetal central nervous system and, possibly, for the detection of functional or structural brain disorders. The new and advanced imaging techniques such as four dimensional sonography might open a new perspective for the study of fetal behavioural patterns and facilitate the development of diagnostic strategies for early detection or prevention of brain dysfunctions. The aim of this chapter is to review the clinical application of three and four dimensional sonography in the assessment of fetal behaviour.


Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sveti Duh hospital, Sveti Duh 64, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.